PEDAGOGICAL TOOLS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CRITICAL THINKING IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF GETTING TO KNOW THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Keywords:development, natural and ecological competence, critical thinking, critical thinking of older preschool children, critical thinking development technology, natural environment, preschool children
The article, based on the analysis of scientific sources and own research, examines the problem of forming the foundations of critical thinking in preschool children. The regulatory and legal framework for the organization of the educational process in the preschool education institution has been analyzed. Despite the urgency of the problem of forming the foundations of critical thinking in preschool children, there is a contradiction in the possibilities of using pedagogical techniques for the development of critical thinking and the unpreparedness of educators for the specified activity. The purpose of the study is to update the problem of the development of the basics of critical thinking in preschool children in the process of familiarization with the natural environment; to systematize and characterize the pedagogical techniques for the development of the mentioned phenomenon in preschoolers. Research material and methods: theoretical analysis of scientific literature and normative documents, comparison, observation, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. Differences in the concepts of "ecological competence" and "natural-ecological competence" are defined. The main characteristics of a person with developed critical thinking are highlighted. Techniques for developing the basics of critical thinking in preschool children during familiarization with the natural environment are systematized and characterized. A study was conducted among educators in the city of Zhytomyr and the region regarding the effectiveness of techniques for developing the basics of critical thinking in preschool children and the list of techniques that practicing teachers use in the educational process. The practical significance of the study is that innovative methods ("Colored words", "Picture gallery", "Prediction tree", "Geocoder", "Fishbone") have been identified and described, which can be used to develop the basics of critical thinking in preschool children in the process of familiarization with the natural environment. The use of innovative methods in the educational process of a preschool institution contributes to increasing motivation to learn new things and stimulating thinking.
Further research of this problem will be focused on the study of the level of development of the basics of critical thinking in older preschool children based on the results of the introduction of educational methods into the educational process of older preschool children. Conclusions. The organization of the educational process in the preschool education institution with the introduction of pedagogical methods will allow to develop the basics of critical thinking in children, which will contribute to increasing their motivation to learn new things, analysis of events and their evaluation, making thoughtful, balanced decisions, choosing an active life position.
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