migration, education, Scandinavian countries, labor migrants, family migration, inclusive education


The article examines the level of education in the Scandinavian countries, educational opportunities for first- and second-generation migrants. The research demonstrates the high level of education provided by Scandinavian higher education institutions not only for the local population, but also for international students. The developed Scandinavian education system with good learning conditions and relatively low tuition fees for foreigners attracts foreign students. We also examined the economic component of the success of Scandinavian education systems. The level of education in the Scandinavian countries is one of the highest in the world, the state budget for the development of the education sector is much larger than in other EU countries. Annually the countries of the Scandinavian region allocate the largest share of the budget among European states to education. Decentralization of decision-making and administration of basic education to regional and local bodies is typical in all Nordic region countries. National-level decision-making is also divided between ministries and one or several national agencies in all these countries. The article provides statistics on the level of education of the general population and a comparison of the level of labor migrants’ education. In order to understand the comprehensive picture of education and employment of immigrants, we carefully examined the migration waves and trends in Northern Europe from the second half of the last century to the present. The article provides detailed statistical data on migrants and their descendants in Scandinavia in general and on individual countries, the status and statistics on family migration. Scandinavian scientists and statisticians comprehensively study the issue of migrants and their integration into society, they realize the fact that new arrivals should be considered and treated as individuals with specific problems. That’s why they need a thorough study of their immigrant background, providing opportunities to learn English or the required Scandinavian language, as well as opportunities and prospects for Ukrainian migrants under martial law.


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